The Internet TESL Journal

List of High-Frequency Baseword Vocabulary for Japanese EFL Students #2

Frank E. Daulton
daulton [at] econ.ryukoku.ac.jp
Ryukoku University (Kyoto, Japan)
A rigorous examination has revealed that 45.5 percent of the 3000, most-frequent word families in English have correspondences to common Japanese loanwords. This article presents a nearly exhaustive list of high-frequency English words that correspond to commonly-known Japanese loanwords. (2390 words)

Introduction

Daulton's (1999) Internet TESL Journal article "English Loanwords in Japanese -- The Built-In Lexicon" reported that 38 percent of the 2000, most-common word families in English corresponded to Japanese loanwords. The resulting "List of High-Frequency Baseword Vocabulary for Japanese EFL Students" (Daulton, 1999) also appeared in the Internet TESL Journal. Yet the reliability of the list was compromised somewhat by relying on a single loanword dictionary as the universe of common loanwords and West's aging A General Service List's (1953) to describe the high-frequency words of English.

A more rigorous examination has revealed even more striking results. About 45.5 percent of the 3000, most-frequent word families in English have correspondences to common Japanese loanwords. The universe of high-frequency, English words was set as the BNC 3000, a frequency list derived by Paul Nation (Victoria University of Wellington) from the British National Corpus. Loanword correspondences were sought in: Motwani's A Dictionary of Loanwords Usage (1991); Kamiya's Tuttle New Dictionary of Loanwords in Japanese (1994); a frequency list generated from the 2001 Mainichi newspapers; as well as with a native informant. Self-assessment by Japanese university students established which words are widely known by Japanese. What results is a nearly exhaustive list of high-frequency English words that correspond to commonly-known Japanese loanwords.

 All English-based loanwords in Japanese have been transformed to some degree. Nevertheless, the author feels that if correspondences are recognized by learners, their effect impels learners along the acquisition path. However, regardless of ones position, the list presented below has obvious importance for English teaching in Japan.

List Format Explanation

The list contains 1,777 types, found within 1,360 BNC 3000 word families. Each letter of the alphabet is divided into three parts. "A-1" includes the first 1000 words in the BNC 3000 that corresponded to loanwords, "A-2" the next 1000, "A-3" the third. Some words will appear out of alphabetical order because they have been extracted from a BNC word family (a head word, its inflected forms, and closely related, derived forms).

The List

A-1
ability
about
access
act
action
active
activity
advantage
advice
advisor
after
afternoon
again
against
agent
age
AIDS
America
American
Americanize
and
animal
announce
announcement
announcer
answer
anything
application
approach
April
area
arm
around
arrange
arrangement
art
artist
attack
attention

A-2
academy
academic
accident
actress
adapt
adapter
address
adopt
adult
advance
Africa
African
alcohol
airport
alive
alone
alternative
angle
apart
apple
appoint
appointment
appointments
assessment
assist
assistance
assistant
assistant
attraction
attractions
automatic
automation
average

A-3
accent
adventure
aggressive
airline
alarm
alright (all right)
aluminum
amateur
ambitious
angel
anniversary
apartment
arch
auction
Australia

B-1
baby
back
background
ball
bank
banker
banking
bar
base
basic
bear
bed
bedroom
beginner
beginning
behind
believe
benefit
best
big
bird
black
body
book
books
bookstore
box
boy
boyish
boys
break
broken
bring
brother
brothers
builder
building
business
businessman
businesswoman
buy

B-2
bag
balance
unbalance
band
barrier
bath
battle
bay
beach
beat
beauty
beer
bell
belt
binder
birthday
block
boat
bond
boot
border
borderline
boss
bottle
bottom
bowl
brain
branch
bread
breakfast
bridge
brief
briefing
bright
brown
brush
burner
bus
microbus
busy

B-3
balloon
bargain
basket
bat
batting
batter
bathroom
batter
beam
bean
bee
bench
bible
bike
motorbike
bitter
blank
blanket
blind
boil
boiler
bolt
bonus
boom
bound
rebound
brand
bucket
butter
butterfly
button

C-1
call
campaign
captain
car
card
care
career
case
showcase
catch
catcher
catching
cent
center
center
central
century
chair
chance
chapter
character
check
checklist
checkpoint
child
children
choice
church
city
claim
class
clear
client
close
club
cold
collect
collector
collection
college
colour; color
colourful; colorful
communicate
communication
community
company
computer
concept
condition
conditioning
container
control
corner
cost
country
couple
course
court
cover
crawl
create
creative
creator
culture
cup
cut
cutter
cutting

C-2
cake
camera
cameraman
camp
capacity
carpet
cash
cashing
cast
casting
miscast
cat
cats
catalogue
catalog
category
catholic
celebrating
challenge
challenging
champion
champions
channel
charity
cheese
chemical
cheque; check
chief
Chinese
Christian
Christmas
cigarette
circle
circuit
classic
classical
classics
clean
cleaner
cleaning
climbing
climber
coast
coat
clock
cloth
cloudy
coach
coast
coating
overcoat
code
coffee
column
combine
combination
comment
commentator
commercial
complex
conductor
connect
connection
consent
constant
consultant
contact
cook
cooking
cool
cooler
copy
cottage
count
counter
cream
credit
crew
critical
cross
crown
cry
curtain
curve
cycle
cycling
recycle

C-3
cable
calendar
Canada
Canadian
cancel
candle
canvas
cap
carbon
cassette
casual
ceremony
champagne
chapel
charming
chart
chase
chicken
chip
chocolate
chorus
cinema
clinic
coin
colony
comedy
comedian
compact
companion
concert
concerto
concrete
convenience
conveyor
cooperation
corn
cotton
counter
cousin
crash
crazy
crystal
curriculum

D-1
damage
dark
data
database
date
day
days
dead
defence
defense
defender
design
designer
designers
designing
development
direct
director
discussion
Dr.
document
documentary
dog
dogs
dollar
door
outdoor
down
drive
driver
drivers
driveway
driving
drop
drug

D-2
dance
dancer
dancing
debate
delivery
democracy
demonstrate
demo
demonstration
desk
diet
dinner
dining
dish
display
domestic
double
doubles
dozen
draft
drama
dramatic
dress
dressing
drink
dry
dryer

D-3
dairy
deadline
deck
decoration
delicate
delicacy
devil
devils
diamond
diary
dictation
dictionary
dilemma
disc
discount
dive
diving
diver
dock
docking
drill
drum
duck
dump

E-1
earth
easy
economy
economist
eight
element
end
ending
energy
English
enjoy
enough
entry
Europe
European
evening
event
everyday
exchange
experience
explain
express
extension
extra

E-2
edition
editor
egg
electronics
emotion
engine
engineer
engineering
equal
error
escape
excellent
excite
exciting
exercise
exhibition
experiment
expert

E-3
elbow
elephant
entertainer
entertainment
episode
essay
essayist
essence
ethnic
excuse
exotic

F-1
face
fact
factor
father
daddy
feeling
field
fight
fighter
fighting
figure
film
final
finalist
finance
finder
fine
finish
fire
first
fish
fishing
fit
fitness
fitting
firing
five
fifty
floor
flooring
fly
flying
flight
follow
food
football
foreign
forest
forget
form
formation
four
French
fresh
refresh
friend
friendly
friends
friendship
full

F-2
fabric
factory
fair
fan
fashion
fashionable
fast
festival
file
flat
flower
focus
foundation
frame
front
fruit

F-3
faint
fantastic
fantasy
fence
fencing
fever
fibre; fiber
fiction
nonfiction
flag
flame
flash
flashback
folk
folks
forever
fork
freezer
frontier
frustration
fur

G-1
game
garden
gardening
general
get
girl
girls
gal
glass
go
goal
good
good-bye
bye
bye-bye
government
great
green
ground
group

G-2
gap
gas
gate
generation
gift
god
gods
gold
golden
golf
golfer
grade
high-grade
grant
grey; gray
guard
guest
guide
guidebook
guidance
gun

G-3
gallery
gang
garage
gear
gesture
ghost
giant
giants
glove
grammar
grip

H-1
hair
hairstyle
half
hall
hand
handling
hands
handy
hanger
happening
happy
happiness
hard
head
heading
health
healthy
hearing
heart
heavy
help
high
highway
highways
history
historical
hit
hitting
hits
holiday
home
homeless
homemade
hope
hospital
hot
hotel
house
hello
hey
hallo; hello
human
humanism
husband

H-2
handle
hat
heater
heaven
hell
hero
heroine
host
hostess

H-3
hammer
hardware
harmony
high-heels
helicopter
highlight
hint
hire
hook
humour; humor
humourous; humorous
humor
hunt
hunting
hunter

I-1
my (I)
idea
identity
in
independent
industry
independence
industrial
info
image
information
international
introduction
island
item

I-2
ice
deal
illustration
illustrator
imagine
imagination
impact
impressions
India
Indian
initial
inside
instruction
instructor
intelligence
intelligent
interval
interview
iron
Italy
Italian

I-3
illusion
inflation
inn
innocent
inspiration
instant
interior

J-1
job
jobs
just

J-2
jacket
Japan
Jap
joint
joke
journalism
journalist
judge
jump
jumping
jumper
junior
justice

J-3
jam
jet
joy
joyful
jungle

K-1
keeper
killer
kind
king
kings

K-2
key
kick
kickoff
kid
kids
kitchen
knife
knock
knockdown
knockout

K-3
kilometer
kilo
kilos
kilogram
kilograms

L-1
lady
ladies
land
last
lead
leader
leadership
sub-leader
learning
left
lets
lettering
level
library
life
light
lighter
spotlight
line
list
listener
listening
little
live
lives
living
local
long
looks
lost
loss
lot
love
low

L-2
label
league
lecture
leisure
lesson
licence; license
lift
lifting
limit
limited
link
lip
loan
locate
location
lock
locker
lucky
lunch

L-3
lamp
lap
Latin
layout
leather
liberty
lifestyle
lion
lions
liver
lobby
log
logic
loop
loose

M-1
machine
main
maintenance
major
made
maker
making
remake
man
men
men's
manage
manager
management
march
marching
market
marketing
match
materials
measure
medical
medium
meeting
member
memory
memorial
memories
mile
miles
million
mind
minute
miss
missing
mister
model
modern
money
morning
mother
move
movement
Mrs.
music
musical
musician

M-2
magazine
mail
manner
map
mark
marker
marriage
master
maximum
meat
mechanism
mental
message
metal
metallic
metre; meter
middle
midnight
milk
milkshake
milky
minimum
minor
minority
mirror
mission
mistake
mix
mixer
mode
monitor
monitoring
mood
moon
moral
motion
motor
mountain
mouse
muscle
museum
mystery
mysterious

M-3
magic
manual
mask
mate
classmate
mechanic
mechanics
menu
merit
demerit
mild
mineral
mini
miracle
monster
monument
motivation

N-1
name
naming
nation
national
nationalism
native
natural
naturalist
naturalism
needs
network
never
new
renewal
next
news
nice
night
nighter
nine
no
normal
abnormal
north
note
notebook
now
number
numbers

N-2
neck
bottleneck
high-necked
negative
nervous
net
noise
noisy
noises
nose
nurse

N-3
nail
neutral
nonsense
nuts

O-1
off
office
oil
okay
ok
on
one
only
open
opening
operation
operator
opinion
option
option
options
order
organizer
origin
original
originality
out
outside
over
owner

O-2
observer
offence
official
outline
overall

O-3
opera
orange
organ
orthodox
output

P-1
page
paper
paperless
park
parking
part
parts
party
pass
pay
prepaid
performer
performance
period
person
physical
pick
pickup
plan
planning
planting
play
playboy
player
playing
replay
please
point
police
policy
political
poor
popular
pops
position
positioning
impossible
post
poster
pound
power
powerful
present
presence
press
price
private
process
processing
produce
producer
product
production
productions
professional
nonprofessional
pro
professionals
profit
programme ; program
project
projector
propose
public
push

P-2
pace
pack
package
pain
paint
painting
pair
panel
partner
partnership
pause
peace
peak
penalty
percent
percentage
perfect
perm
personality
photography
photographer
phrase
pilot
pink
pitcher
pitching
plastic
platform
plus
pocket
poem
poll
pool
pose
positive
pot
practical
pretty
prince
princess
print
misprint
printer
reprint
professor
profile
promise
promotion
proportion
protect
protest
psychology
pure

P-3
panic
parade
parallel
part-time
part-timer
passion
passport
patch
pen
pencil
pet
petition
photo
piano
pianist
pin
pint
pipe
planet
plot
pole
pops
potato
powder
precious
president
pride
privacy
pump
punch

Q-1
quality
quarter
quarterly
question
quick

Q-2
queen

Q-3

R-1
race
radio
rail
range
rank
ranking
rate
reader
reading
real
reality
reasonable
receive
receiver
record
recording
recorder
red
report
reporter
research
response
rest
right
river
road
rock
room
risk
rise
rising
rock
room
showroom
round
royalty
rule
runner
running

R-2
rain
raincoat
rainwear
rare
reaction
regular
relax
relaxing
release
relief
rent
rental
repeat
request
respect
restaurant
retire
rich
ride
ring
roll
roller
Rome
Roman
root
roots
rough
route
rush
Russia

R-3
rabbit
random
rear
receipt
recipe
recruit
resort
resume
revenge
reversible
revival
rhythm
rhythmical
ribbon
rice
rival
romance
romantic
romanticist
rope
rubber

S-1
sale
sales
Saturday
save
scale
scene
school
science
scientific
scientist
seaside
season
seat
second
secretary
section
security
sell
sense
sensational
sensor
series
serious
serve
service
set
reset
setting
seven
seventeen
sex
sexuality
sexy
shake
shaker
share
sharing
shop
shopping
window-shopping
sort
shortcut
show
side
sign
simple
single
sister
sisters
site
situation
six
size
king-size
skill
something
sorry
sound
sounds
source
space
speak
speaker
speaking
special
specialist
specialty
staff
stage
stand
standing
standard
star
start
station
stay
step
still
stock
stone
stop
nonstop
story
stories
stranger
street
restructuring
student
study
style
stylebook
styling
stylish
stylist
success
summer
summertime
sun
sunshine
supply
support
supporter
sure
system
systems

S-2
safe
salary
sample
sand
schedule
score
screen
search
secret
select
selection
senior
sensitive
sentence
session
severe
shadow
shape
sharp
sheet
sheets
shift
ship
shirt
shirts
shock
shocking
shoes
shoot
shot
shoulder
shut
shutter
sick
signal
silencer
silent
silver
singer
sink
skin
sky
slide
sliding
slip
slow
smile
smooth
snap
snow
soft
song
songwriter
soul
Spain
speech
speed
speedup
speedy
spirit
spirits
spirituality
split
sport
sports
spot
spring
stake
status
steam
stick
sticker
store
straight
stress
stretch
stretching
strike
stuff
sugar
suit
summary
surprise
survival
sweet
swing
switch
switching
symbol

S-3
sailor
salmon
sandwich
satellite
scan
scandal
scandalous
scrap
scratch
seal
sentimental
shining
shower
shy
silk
sketch
sketchbook
sleeve
slice
slim
slope
smart
smash
soap
soup
soviet
spare
spectacle
spell
spin
sponsor
stamp
stewardess
straw
strip
strips
suite
supermarket
supplement
suspenders
suspense
swimming
Swiss

T-1
table
takeout
talk
target
team
technique
technology
biotechnology
television
televisions
ten
test
text
textbook
thanks
time
timer
times
timely
title
subtitle
today
tomorrow
top
topping
total
town
downtown
trade
trademark
traditional
train
trainer
training
treatment
tree
trouble
try
turn
two
type
typing
typist
typewriter

T-2
tackle
talent
tall
tape
taste
tea
tearing
technical
technician
telephone
phone
tennis
tension
territory
theater
theme
ticket
ticketless
tie
necktie
tight
tip
tire
tissue
tone
tonight
tool
topic
topics
touch
touching
tough
tour
touring
tourist
tower
towers
trace
track
traffic
travel
traveler
traveling
trip
trust
tube
tunnel

T-3
tap
taxi
teenager
tent
terrace
terror
terrorism
terrorist
tiger
timetable
timing
toe
toilet
ton
toy
trap
treasure
trend
triangle
truck
trunk
tuning
twin
twins
twist
tyre; tire

U-1
union
unit
university
up
useful
user

U-2
unite
unique

U-3
underline
uniform
universe
universal

V-1
variety
version
village
voice

V-2
variation
vegetable
victory
video
violent
violence
vision
vitality
volume
volunteer

V-3
visual
wiper
wise
wrap
wrapping

W-1
wait
waiter
waitress
walk
walking
watch
watching
water
way
wear
knitwear
weekend
weekly
weight
west
white
white-collar
wide
wife
will
win
winner
wins
window
windows
wish
woman
women
women's
wonderful
word
world
work
worker
working
writer
writing

W-2
wash
washable
wasting
wave
weapon
wedding
welcome
wet
wild
wind
wine
wineglass
wing
wings
winter
wire
wireless
wood
workshop

W-3

X-1

X-2

X-3

Y-1
year
yes
yesterday
you
young

Y-2
yard
yellow
youth

Y-3

Z-1

Z-2
zone

Z-3
zero

References


The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 3, March 2003
http://www.tpcul.com/
http://www.tpcul.com/Lists/Daulton-BasewordVocab2.html
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